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Winkelmann, A., √únal, A. A., Tusche, C., Ellguth, M., Chiang, C.-T., Kirschner, J.

Direct k-space imaging of Mahan cones at clean and Bi-covered Cu(111) surfaces
New Journal of Physics 14, (8),pp 083027/1-16 (2012)
Using a specifically tailored experimental approach, we revisit the exemplary effect of photoemission from quasi-free electronic states in crystals. Applying a momentum microscope, we measure photoelectron momentum patterns emitted into the complete half-space above the sample after excitation from a linearly polarized laser light source. By the application of a fully three-dimensional (3D) geometrical model of direct optical transitions, we explain the characteristic intensity distributions that are formed by the photoelectrons in k-space under the combination of energy conservation and crystal momentum conservation in the 3D bulk as well as at the two-dimensional (2D) surface. For bismuth surface alloys on Cu(111), the energy-resolved photoelectron momentum patterns allow us to identify specific emission processes in which bulk excited electrons are subsequently diffracted by an atomic 2D surface grating. The polarization dependence of the observed intensity features in momentum space is explained based on the different relative orientations of characteristic reciprocal space directions with respect to the electric field vector of the incident light.