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Hertel, R., Kronm├╝ller, H.

Finite element calculations on the single-domain limit of a ferromagnetic cube - A solution to μMAG Standard Problem No. 3
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 238, pp 185-199 (2002)
Zero field states of the magnetization in a uniaxial ferromagnetic sample of cubic shape are calculated by means of micromagnetic finite element modeling. With increasing size the minimum energy arrangement changes from a single-domain configuration (flower state) to a vortex configuration. An intermediate arrangement (twisted flower state) between the flower state and the vortex state is observed. A further magnetization state resulting in the calculation is a vortex state with a singularity of the directional field of the magnetization. This work provides our solution to the micromagnetic Standard Problem No. 3 posed by the μMAG micromagnetic modeling activity group at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).